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An In-Depth Analysis Of The Battle Of Britain From The Especial Perspective Of Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding, The Head Of The Royal Air Force Fighter Command During The Battle Of Britain, The Man Chiefly Behind The Strategy And Tactics Used To Defeat The Attempt By Nazi Germany To Attain Air Supremacy In Preparation For The Planned Cross Channel Invasion Of England, And Whose Scant Thanks From His Country For Having Done So This Documentary Goes Far In Correcting. Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS As An Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD, MP4 Video Download Or USB Flash Drive! (Color, 1989, 55 Minutes.) #HughDowding #AirMarshalDowding #BattleOfBritain #FabianStrategy #RoyalAirForce #RAF #No16SquadronRAF #AirDefenceOfGreatBritain #ADGB #RAFFighterCommand #TheFew #TheBlitz #AirWarfareOfWWII #Theosophy #TheosophicalSociety #Spiritualism #Reincarnation #FairyInvestigationSociety #Occultism #WorldWarI #WorldWarOne #WorldWar1 #WWI #WW1 #FirstWorldWar #FirstEuropeanWar #SecondEuropeanWar #EuropeanCivilWar #WorldWarII #WWII #WW2 #WorldWarTwo #WorldWar2 #SecondWorldWar #AirCombat #AirBattles #RAFFighterCommandHistory #HistoryOfRAFFighterCommand #RAFHistory #Luftwaffe #HermannGoering #MilitaryHistoryOfTheUKDuringWWII #StrategicBombingDuringWWII #AerialBombardment #AirStrikes #AerialWarfare #London #LondonHistory #AirRaids #AerialBombing #StrategicBombing #WWIIAviation #AviationInWorldWarII #AviationInWWII #AirWarfareOfWorldWarII #OperationEagleAttack #OperationSeaLion #EuropeanTheaterOfWWII #EuropeanTheatreOfWWII #DVD #VideoDownload #MP4 #USBFlashDrive
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April 24, 1882: Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding, Scottish-English air marshal responsible for the successful strategy Great Britain employed against the German Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain, theosophist, spiritualist, occultist and author (d. 1970) was born. Because of his brilliant detailed preparation of Britain's air defences for the German assault, and his prudent management of his resources during the battle, Dowding is today generally given the credit for Britain's victory in the Battle of Britain. Hugh Caswall Tremenheere Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding, GCB, GCVO, CMG served as a fighter pilot and then as commanding officer of No. 16 Squadron during the First World War. During the inter-war years he became Air Officer Commanding Fighting Area, Air Defence of Great Britain and then joined the Air Council as Air Member for Supply and Research. He was Air Officer Commanding RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain and is generally credited with playing a crucial role in Britain's defence, and hence, the defeat of Adolf Hitler's plan to invade Britain. He was unwillingly replaced in command in November 1940 by Big Wing advocate Sholto Douglas. Dowding was known for his humility and great sincerity. Fighter Command pilots came to characterise Dowding as one who cared for his men and had their best interests at heart. Dowding often referred to his "dear fighter boys" as his "chicks": indeed his son Derek was one of them. Dowding's subsequent downfall has been attributed by some to his singlemindedness and perceived lack of diplomacy and political savoir faire in dealing with intra-RAF challenges and intrigues, most obviously the still even now hotly debated Big Wing controversy in which a number of senior and active service officers had argued in favour of large set-piece air battles with the Luftwaffe as an alternative to Dowding's successful Fabian strategy where pitched battles and frontal assaults are avoided in favor of wearing down an opponent through a war of attrition and indirection. Another reason often cited for his removal, but characterised by some contemporary commentators more as a pretext, was the difficulty of countering German nighttime bombing raids on British cities. Dowding himself showed that he had a good grasp of night fighter defence and was planning a defence system against night bombing in a letter he wrote some time after the Battle of Britain. However, there was great political and public pressure during the Blitz for something to be done, and Fighter Command's existing resources without, as yet, airborne radar, proved woefully inadequate. A committee of enquiry chaired by Sir John Salmond produced a long list of recommendations to improve night air defence; when Dowding approved only some of them, his erstwhile supporters, Lord Beaverbrook and Churchill, decided that it was time for him to step down. Dowding was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 8 October 1940. He unwillingly relinquished command on 24 November 1940 and was replaced by Big Wing advocate Sholto Douglas. Churchill tried to soften the blow by putting him in charge of the British Air Mission to the USA, responsible for the procurement of new aircraft types. Publication of his book Twelve Legions of Angels was suppressed in 1942. The British Government considered that it contained information which might be of use to the Germans. The book was finally published in 1946, soon after the war ended. After leaving Fighter Command, Dowding was sent on special duty to the United States for the Ministry of Aircraft Production, but there he made himself unpopular with his outspokenness. On his return he headed a study into economies of RAF manpower before retiring from the Royal Air Force in July 1942. He was elevated to the peerage, as Baron Dowding of Bentley Priory on 2 June 1943. Later in life, because of his belief that he was unjustly treated by the RAF, Dowding became increasingly bitter. He approved Robert Wright's book Dowding and the Battle of Britain which argued that a conspiracy of Big Wing proponents, including Trafford Leigh-Mallory and Douglas Bader, had engineered his sacking from Fighter Command. In the wake of the debate that followed, the RAF passed him over for promotion to Marshal of the Royal Air Force. In his retirement, Dowding became actively interested in spiritualism, both as a writer and speaker. His first book on the subject, Many Mansions, was written in 1943, followed by Lychgate (1945), The Dark Star and God's Magic. Rejecting conventional Christianity, he joined the Theosophical Society which advocated belief in reincarnation. He wrote of meeting dead "RAF boys" in his sleep - spirits who flew fighters from mountain-top runways made of light. He was also a member of the Fairy Investigation Society. Although he knew that people considered him a crank for his belief in fairies, Dowding believed that fairies "are essential to the growth of plants and the welfare of the vegetable kingdom". Dowding died at his home in Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent, on 15 February 1970. Following his cremation, his ashes were laid to rest below the Battle of Britain Memorial Window in the Royal Air Force chapel at Westminster Abbey. Dowding's son Derek (1919-1992) inherited the title of Baron Dowding.
The Battle of Britain (German: Die Luftschlacht Um England, "The Air Battle For England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) of the Royal Navy defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. It has been described as the first major military campaign fought entirely by air forces. The British officially recognise the battle's duration as being from 10 July until 31 October 1940, which overlaps the period of large-scale night attacks known as the Blitz, that lasted from 7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941. German historians do not accept this subdivision and regard the battle as a single campaign lasting from July 1940 to June 1941, including the Blitz. The primary objective of the German forces was to compel Britain to agree to a negotiated peace settlement. In July 1940, the air and sea blockade began, with the Luftwaffe mainly targeting coastal-shipping convoys, as well as ports and shipping centres such as Portsmouth. On 1 August, the Luftwaffe was directed to achieve air superiority over the RAF, with the aim of incapacitating RAF Fighter Command; 12 days later, it shifted the attacks to RAF airfields and infrastructure. As the battle progressed, the Luftwaffe also targeted factories involved in aircraft production and strategic infrastructure. Eventually, it employed terror bombing on areas of political significance and on civilians. The Germans had rapidly overwhelmed France and the Low Countries, leaving Britain to face the threat of invasion by sea. The German high command recognised the logistic difficulties of a seaborne attack, particularly while the Royal Navy controlled the English Channel and the North Sea. On 16 July, Hitler ordered the preparation of Operation Sea Lion as a potential amphibious and airborne assault on Britain, to follow once the Luftwaffe had air superiority over the Channel. In September, RAF Bomber Command night raids disrupted the German preparation of converted barges, and the Luftwaffe's failure to overwhelm the RAF forced Hitler to postpone and eventually cancel Operation Sea Lion. The Luftwaffe proved unable to sustain daylight raids, but their continued night-bombing operations on Britain became known as the Blitz. Historian Stephen Bungay cited Germany's failure to destroy Britain's air defences to force an armistice (or even an outright surrender) as the first major German defeat in World War II and a crucial turning point in the conflict. The Battle of Britain takes its name from the speech given by Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the House of Commons on 18 June: "What General Weygand called the 'Battle of France' is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin."