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War Crimes: The Nuremberg Trials, The My Lai Massacre Trials And The John Demjanjuk Trials: Real-Life Case Studies Of How American Justice Influenced The Interpretation And Practice Of International Law Regarding The War Crimes Prosecuted In Each Of These Sets Of Trials, An Investigation Hosted By Bill Kurtis With Exclusive Commentary By My Lai Trial Lawyer F. Lee Bailey, Cardozo Law School Professor Jonathan Bush, My Lai Massacre Defendant Kenneth Hodges, My Lai Trial (Ernest Medina) Judge Ken Howard, My Lai Trial (William Calley ) Judge Reid Kennedy, And Demjanjuk Defense Attorney Yoram Sheftel, And Presented As An MP4 Video Download Or Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD! (Color, 1994, 48 Minutes.) #WarCrimes #WarAtrocities #WarCriminals #CrimesAgainstPeace #CrimesAgainstHumanity #BillKurtis #FLeeBailey #JonathanBush #KennethHodges #KenHoward #ReidKennedy #YoramSheftel #NurembergTrials #WarTrials #MilitaryTribunals #ThirdReich #NaziGermany #HermannGoering #HermannGoring #RudolfHess #HansFrank #WilhelmFrick #AlfredJodl #ErnstKaltenbrunner #WilhelmKeitel #AlfredRosenberg #FritzSauckel #ArthurSeyssInquart #JuliusStreicher #JoachimVonRibbentrop #FranzVonPapen #GustavKrupp #HjalmarSchacht #AlbertSpeer #WaltherFunk #FritzSaucke #ErichRaeder #KarlDonitz #HansFritzsche #BaldurVonSchirach #Atrocities #Holocaust #TheHolocaust #FinalSolution #Genocide #MassMurder #Endlosung #Murder #Extermination #Jews #Pogroms #JewishPogroms #ConcentrationsCamps #SS #Shutzstaffel #Nazism #Nazis #Racism #LondonCharter #NurembergCharter #EuropeanAdvistoryCommission #WorldWarII #WWII #WW2 #WorldWarTwo #WorldWar2 #SecondWorldWar #SecondEuropeanWar #EuropeanCivilWar #MyLaiMassacre #PinkvilleMassacre #SongMyMassacre #WilliamCalley #ErnestMedina #Vietnam #SouthVietnam #VietnamWar #SecondIndochinaWar #JohnDemjanjuk #Demjanjuk #IvanTheTerrible #NaziConcentrationCamps #ExterminationCamps #DeathCamps #Sobibor #Treblinka #Majdanek #Law #InternationalLaw #MP4 #VideoDownload #DVD
November 20, 1945: The Nuremberg War Crime Trials begins as 24 former leaders of Nazi Germany are charged with conspiracy to wage wars of aggression, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. On August 8, 1945, The London Charter, also referred to as the Nuremberg Charter, the decree issued by the European Advisory Commission, set down the laws, rules and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted when it iss signed by France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States. The Charter of the International Military Tribunal - Annex to the Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis (usually referred to as the Nuremberg Charter or London Charter) stipulated that crimes of the European Axis Powers could be tried. Three categories of crimes were defined: crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Article 8 of the charter also stated that holding an official position was no defense to war crimes. Obedience to orders could only be considered in mitigation of punishment if the Tribunal determined that justice so required. The criminal procedure used by the Tribunal was closer to civil law than to common law, with a trial before a panel of judges rather than a jury trial and with wide allowance for hearsay evidence. Defendants who were found guilty could appeal the verdict to the Allied Control Council. In addition, they would be permitted to present evidence in their defense and to cross-examine witnesses. The Charter was developed by the European Advisory Commission under the authority of the Moscow Declaration: Statement on Atrocities, which was agreed at the Moscow Conference (1943). It was drawn up in London, following the surrender of Germany on VE Day. It was drafted by Robert H. Jackson, Robert Falco, and Iona Nikitchenko of the European Advisory Commission and issued on 8 August 1945. The Charter and its definition of crimes against peace was also the basis of the Finnish law, approved by the Finnish parliament on 11 September 1945, that enabled the war-responsibility trials in Finland. The agreement enabled the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis. The Agreement and Charter were subsequently ratified by 19 other Allied states. Some of the most famous Nazis - Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels - had committed suicide and therefore could not be tried. The prosecutors wanted to try representative leaders of German politics, economy, and military; and the Americans had a list of 70 names at the London Conference. Most of the defendants had surrendered to the United States Army. The defendants, most of whom were unrepentant, included former cabinet ministers: Franz von Papen (who had brought Hitler to power); Joachim von Ribbentrop (foreign minister), Wilhelm Frick (interior minister), and Alfred Rosenberg, minister for the occupied eastern territories. Also prosecuted were leaders of the German economy, such as Gustav Krupp (of the conglomerate Krupp AG), former Reichsbank president Hjalmar Schacht, and economic planners Albert Speer and Walther Funk, along with Speer's subordinate and head of the forced labor program program, Fritz Sauckel. The military leaders were Hermann Goring, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Erich Raeder, and Karl Donitz. Also on trial were propagandists Julius Streicher and Hans Fritzsche; Rudolf Hess, Hitler's deputy who had flown to Britain in 1941; Hans Frank, governor-general of the General Governorate of Poland; Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach; Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Reich Commissioner for the Netherlands; and Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the leader of Himmler's Reich Main Security Office. The verdict of the International Military Tribunal agreed with the prosecution that aggression was the gravest charge against the accused, stating in its judgement that because war in general is evil, "To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is not only an international crime; it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole." The judgment found that there was a premeditated conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, the goals of the conspiracy being "the disruption of the European order as it had existed since the Treaty of Versailles" and "the creation of a Greater Germany beyond the frontiers of 1914". Four organizations were ruled to be criminal: the Leadership Corps of the Nazi Party, the SS, the Gestapo, and the SD, although some lower ranks and subgroups were excluded. The exact sentences to be given each defendant were debated at length by the judges. Twelve of the defendants were sentenced to death (Goring, Ribbentrop, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Frank, Frick, Streicher, Sauckel, Jodl, Seyss-Inquart, and Bormann). On 16 October, ten were hanged, with Goring committing suicide the day before. Seven defendants (Hess, Funk, Raeder, Donitz, Schirach, Speer, and Neurath) were sent to Spandau Prison to serve their sentences. All three acquittals (Papen, Schacht, and Fritzsche) were based on a deadlock between the judges; these acquittals surprised observers. Despite being accused of the same crimes, Sauckel was sentenced to death, while Speer was given a prison sentence because the judges considered that he could reform. Nikichenko released a dissent approved by Moscow that rejected all the acquittals, called for a death sentence for Hess, and convicted all the organizations. The judges proved their independence from the governments that appointed them, the defendants were seen as receiving due process, and the evidence of guilt amassed by the prosecution was overwhelming.
March 16, 1968: The My Lai Massacre occurs, a war crime of the Vietnam War, a mass killing of between 347 and 504 unarmed Vietnamese civilians in South Vietnam. It was committed by U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd (Americal) Infantry Division. Victims included men, women, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated. Twenty-six soldiers were charged with criminal offenses, but only Lieutenant William Calley Jr., a platoon leader in C Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but served only three and a half years under house arrest. The massacre, which was later called "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War", took place in two hamlets of Son My village in Quang Ngai Province. These hamlets were marked on the U.S. Army topographic maps as My Lai and My Khe. The U.S. Army slang name for the hamlets and sub-hamlets in that area was Pinkville, and the carnage was initially referred to as the Pinkville Massacre. On November 12, 1969, independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh broke the story of the My Lai Massacre, for which he received the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting. Later, when the U.S. Army started its investigation, the media changed it to the Massacre at Songmy. Currently, the event is referred to as the My Lai Massacre in the United States and called the Son My Massacre in Vietnam. The incident prompted global outrage when it became public knowledge as a result of Hersh' story. The My Lai massacre increased domestic opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War when the scope of killing and cover-up attempts were exposed. Initially, three U.S. servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and rescue the hiding civilians were shunned, and even denounced as traitors by several U.S. Congressmen, including Mendel Rivers, Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Only after thirty years were they recognized and decorated, one posthumously, by the U.S. Army for shielding non-combatants from harm in a war zone. Along with the No Gun Ri massacre in Korea eighteen years earlier, My Lai was one of the largest single massacres of civilians by U.S. forces in the 20th century.
February 16, 1987: The Trial Of John Demjanjuk, accused of being a Nazi guard dubbed "Ivan the Terrible" in Treblinka extermination camp, starts in Jerusalem. On April 25, 1988, in Israel, John Demjanjuk, a retired Ukrainian-American auto worker living in the Seven Hills, Ohio, accused of being prisoner guard Ivan Marchenko and known at Treblinka extermination camp as "Ivan The Terrible", and of being Ivan Demjanjuk, a prisoner guard at the Sobibor and Majdanek death camps, was sentenced to death for war crimes committed during World War II. On July 29, 1993, the Supreme Court of Israel acquits alleged Nazi death camp guard John Demjanjuk of all charges and he is set free.