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UNIVERSAL NEWSREELS VOLUME FIVE: WORLD WAR II AFTERMATH AND THE COLD WAR BEGINS: 1946-1952 (Total Run Time: 4 Hrs. 16 Mins.)
Strikes Threaten Industry, 1946-01-07 | 82nd Airborne Parades For GI Victory, 1946-01-14 | Adm_ Kimmel Testifies On Pearl Harbor, 1946-01-14 | Churchill On Vacation, 1946-01-21 | Radar makes Round Trip To Moon, 1946-01-31 | New Airliner, 1946-02-21 | Reds Bolt UNO Meeting, 1946-03-28 | Nation Pays Tribute To Its Soldiers, 1946-04-08 | Nazi Film Shows V-2 Rocket Test, 1946-05-02 | First Pictures Nazi Rocket Bomb in U_S, 1946-05-13 | Rail Strike Paralyzes Entire U_S_, 1946-05-23 | Coal Strike Ended, 1946-05-29 | Eisenhower Says We Must Back Victory, 1946-06-03 | Damage Foreshadows A-Bomb Test , 1946-06-06 | Allied Victory Parade, 1946-06-10 | Atom Test Nears, 1946-06-13 | Japan Today, 1946-06-20 | Big Four Turns Down Austria on Tyrol, 1946-06-24 | Monster Flying Wing, 1946-06-27 | Operations Crossroads Underway, 1946-07-01 | Heroes Comes Home, 1946-07-03 | First Pictures Atomic Blast!, 1946-07-08 | Hughes Plane Crash, 1946-07-11 | Philippine's Independence Proclaimed, 1946-07-15 | Big Four's Peace Meet Open Again, 1946-06-17 | Pres_ Truman Honors Nisei Combat Group, 1946-07-18 | Jap Films Of Hiroshima, 1946-08-05 | Biggest Bomber, 1946-08-15 | President on Vacation, 1946-08-19 | Navy's Biggest Airplane, 1946-08-23 | Volunteers Unload UNRRA Food Supplies, 1946-08-26 | UN Starts Session At New Home, 1946-08-30 | Yugoslavia Air Victims, 1946-09-02 | Byrnes Sets U_S_ Policy For Germany, 1946-09-10 | Monty Comes To U_S_, 1946-09-13 | Air Victims Come Home, 1946-09-17 | Sec_ Wallace Stirs Foreign Policy Debate, 1946-09-19 | Gen_ Clark Honored at Salerno, 1946-09-23 | Pittsburgh Paralyzed By Strikes, 1946-10-03 | Twenty-one Nazi Chiefs Guilty, 1946-10-08 | Byrnes Denies Atom Threat, 1946-10-10 | Truman Lifts Meat Price Controls, 1946-10-14 | Byrnes Wants All To Share Peacemaking, 1946-10-17 | Navy Day! 1946-10-21 | Soviet's U_N_ Proposals Answered, 1946-10-31 | Big 4 Resume Peace Talks, 1946-11-04 | White Sands NM V-2 rocket, 1946-11-21 | Britain's Roosevelt Memorial At Grosvenor Square, 1946-11-28 | U_N_ and Big 4 Adjourn, 1946-12-16 | 80th Congress Convenes, 1947-01-06 | Marshall Succeeds Byrnes, 1947-01-09 | U_ S_ Will Keep Faith Says Byrnes, 1947-01-13 | New Head Of Church Installed, 1947-01-16 | Army-Navy Agree On Merger, 1947-01-20 | Hitler's Heyday, 1947-02-20 | Runyon Cancer Drive, 1947-05-19 | 94 Die Airplane Crashes, 1947-06-02 | West Point Graduation, 1947-06-05 | Hollywood 'Red' Probe Begins, 1947-10-20 | U_S_ Films Fight Reds, 1947-10-23 | Berlin Siege_ Gen_ Clay Returns To Report On Red Crisis, 1948-07-22 | Cuba President in U_S_, 1948-12-09 | Red Spy Films_ Chambers Farm Yields Top Secret Documents, 1948-12-06 | Dedication_ Warren, Hoover, Hail New Truman Library, 1957-07-08 | Berlin Airlift increased, 1948-10-25 | Ilse Lock war crimes trial in Germany, 1948-10-28 | Navy Tests Twin Jet Fighter, 1948-11-22 | Clay speaks on Berlin Airlift,1948-10-21 | 1949 In Review, 1949-12-26 | War or Peace 1950 Fateful Year, 1950-12-21 | New Commander_ Gen_ Clark Succeeds Ridgway As UN Chief, 1952-05-12 | Atom Sub_ President Officiates At Laying Of Keel, 1952-06-16 | Korea See-Saw Battle For 'Baldy' Ridge Rages, 1952-08-07 | Politics_ Ike Stumps Midwest; Adlai's Son A Marine, 1952-09-22 | Politics_ Ike Okays Nixon; Adlai In Baltimore, 1952-09-25
UNIVERSAL NEWSREELS VOLUME SIX: THE COLD WAR 1953-1956 (Total Run Time: 3 Hr. 35 Mins.)
Anniversary of 1953 East Berlin uprising | President_ Foreign Students Hear Peace Hopes, 1955-07-15 | At the Summit, 1955-07-18 | Ike's Challenge, 1955-07-21 | Ike Returns_ Sees Progress at Geneva Conference, 1955-07-25 | Far East parley_ U_S_ and Red China Confer in Geneva, 1955-08-04 | Journey Bound_ Fliers Freed After Two Years Captivity, 1955-08-08 | Hoover 81_ Shrine made of Boyhood Home, 1955-08-11 | Storm Havoc_ Hurricane Kills 43, Damage 15 Millions, 1955-08-15 | Air Defenses, 1955-08-18 | Northeast Devastated by Floods, 1955-08-22 | Flood Relief_ President Inspects Area and Speeds Aid, 1955-08-25 | U_S_S_ Forrestal, 1955-09-01 | New York City, 1955-09-05 | Moscow Parley_ P_O_W_ issue Stalls Russo-German Talks, 1955-09-12 | The President_ 1st Pictures of ike Since His Illness, 1955-10-27 | Deadlock_ East-West Tensions Stymie Geneva Meet, 1955-10-31 | Ike Returns_ Thousands Hail Him at Capital, 1955-11-14 | Labor Merger_ AF of L and CIO Join Forces, 1955-12-05 | U_S_ Jet Planes Go To Airforce of The Netherlands, 1955-12-19 | Guided Missile. Navy Tests Newest Atomic War Weapon, 1956/02/09 | Army Digs In for Defense of Arctic, 1956/02/27 | New Missile May Replace Navy's Guns, 1956/04/05 | Arctic Sentinels. Building Rushed on Radar Defense, 1956/04/09 | Full Scale War Looms in Middle East , 1956/04/12 | Sea Sentinel. Navy Demonstrates Offshore Radar, 1956/05/03 | Armed Forces display U.S. Might On Observance Day, 1956/05/21 | H-Bomb Blast Exploded at 15,000 Feet Over Pacific, 1956/05/24 | Cyprus Riots, 1956/05/31 | Red Carpet for Tito in Moscow, 1956/06/07 | Tito arrives in Moscow by train, greeted by Khrushchev and Bulganin (partial newsreel) | Reds Withdraw. Cut Down Troops in East Germany, 1956/06/25 | Freedom Flight. Hungarians Seize Plane to Germany, 1956/07/16 | Ike In Panama. Urges Atom Plan for Hemisphere, 1956/07/23 | Suez Canal Seized By Egyptians, 1956/07/30 | Suez Crisis. British, French Rush Warships to Area, 1956/08/06 | Press Parley. Ike Urges Caution on Seizure of Suez, 1956/08/09 | It's Ike and Nixon! 1956/08/23 | Fleet Review. Secretary Honored in 200 Ship Parade, 1956/09/17 | Space Secrets. new Rocket To Seek New Cosmic Data, 1956/09/31 | Freedom Road. Hungarian Patriots force Red Retreat, 1956/10/24 | War in Egypt. British and French Bomb Its Key Cities, 1956/11/01 | Eisenhower Re-Elected, 1956/11/05 | Landslide for Eisenhower, 1956/11/08 | Near East Crisis. Invasions Complete, UN Will Take Over, 1956/11/12 | Republican Convention, 1956/08/20 | Walk Out. Hungarian puppets Quit UN Assembly, 1956/12/13
UNIVERSAL NEWSREELS VOLUME SEVEN: THE COLD WAR AND THE SPACE RACE 1957-1959 (Total Run Time: 2 Hr. 51 Mins.)
2nd Atom Sub Sea Wolf Undergoes First Sea Trials, 1957-02-11 | Tel Aviv Israel, 1957-02-14 | Redstone Missile In production, 1957-02-14 | A New Nation_ Gold Coast becomes Ghana In Ceremony, 1957-03-07 | Kansas, 1957-04-04 | New Aerial Work Horse Wears Skiis, 1957-04-08 | Spanish Revolution Anniversary, 1957-04-08 | Atom Fallout_ New Tests Begin As Safety Debate Rages, 1957-05-30 | Maryland, 1957-05-30 | British H-Bomb Fired As Debate On Atom Test Ban Rages, 1957-06-03 | French Air Show, 1957-06-06 | 'Moon' Is Born_ The Story of 'Project Vanguard', 1957-07-04 | Dedication_ Warren, Hoover, Hail New Truman Library, 1957-07-08 | US Fires Biggest A-Bomb, 1957-07-08 | Jet Record_ Coast To Coast In 3 Hours, 23 Minutes, 1957-07-18 | Red Colonel_ Top-Ranking Russian Spy Chief Captured, 1957-08-12 | New Moon_ Reds Launch First Space Satellite, 1957-10-07 | Ike Denies U_S_ lag In Missiles, 1957-10-10 | Space Race_ U_S_ In Lead With 4_000-Mile Rocket, 1957-10-28 | Pennsylvania, 1957-11-04 | Ike Reports_ First Missile Recovered From Flight In Space, 1957-11-07 | Satellite A Bust_ Rocket Blows Up In First U_S, 1957-12-09 | Air Force Gets A New Theme Song, 1957-12-09 | Baghdad pact_ Unified Military Command Seen, 1958-01-30 | First U_S_ Satellite Launched! 1958-02-03 | Navy's Satellite_ Vanguard Fails in Second Launching, 1958-02-06 | Britain Mourns_ Soccer Champs Die In Plane Crash, 1958-02-10 | Reds Back Down Release 26 From Hijacked Airlines, 1958-03-10 | 3rd Vanguard Successful - Moon Launcher, 1958-03-17 | 'Dead' A-Bomb Hits U_S_ Town, 1958-03-13 | Brussels World's Fair, 1958-03-17 | Space Policeman_ Pegasus Measures Action Of Meteoroids, 1965-05-27 | Russian exhibit of Sputnik, 1958-06-09 | Brooklyn, N_Y_ 1958-06-09 | De Gaulle And Dulles Meet, 1958-07-07 | Mid East Crisis_ Area Quiet Pending U_N_-Summit Talk, 1958-07-24 | Akron, Ohio, 1958-07-24 | A-Sub Epic_ Nautilus Pioneers North Pole Seaway, 1958-08-11 | Ike Tells U_N_ Direct U_N_ Action Is Key To Mid-East Peace, 1958-08-14 | Triton Launched_ Giant Sub First With Twin Nuclear Engines, 1958-08-21 | Nautilus sub returns to New York harbor, 1958-08-23 | Atlas In Orbit_ Radios Ike's Message Of Peace To World, 1958-12-22 | News Review of 1958 | Castro Triumphs_ Havana Crowds Hail Success Of Revolt, 1959-01-05 | Kremlin Envoy Mikoyan, No_ 2 Red, In U_S_ For 'Vacation', 1959-01-05 | 49th Star_ Alaska Statehood, New Flag, Official, 1959-01-05 | New Delhi, India, 1959-01-08 | 5th Republic, New Era Dawns As De Gaulle Invested, 1959-01-12 | Mikoyan In N_Y_ No_ 2 Red Sees City Under Heavy Guard, 1959-01-15 | Rally For Castro_ One Million Roar 'Si' To Cuban Executions, 1959-01-22 | Deny Rocket Lag_ Atlas Firing Keynotes U_S_ Missile Build-Up, 1959-01-29 | 'Titan' Launched_ 1st Test Of Newest ICBM Is Successful, 1959-02-09 | Weather Eye_ Vanguard II Satellite Scans Sky From Space, 1959-02-19 | Kremlin Visit_ Macmillan Talks With Khrushchev - A Fizzle, 1959-02-26 | Crisis Ends_ 3 Nations Rejoice At Cyprus Settlement, 1959-02-26 | Pioneer IV Passes Moon, Heads Into Solar Orbit, 1959-03-05 | Big 3 & Berlin_ Concern Mounts As Deadline Approaches, 1959-03-05 | Philippines, 1959-03-09 | Junior Missilemen_ Army Aids Teen Agers In Mass Rocket Shoot, 1959-03-09 | Aloha Hawaii_ islanders Celebrate Long-Sought Statehood, 1959-03-16 | Project Argus 'Greatest Experiment' 3 A-Blasts In Space, 1959-03-19 | Detroit, 1959-03-19 | At Sea, 1959-04-13 | Dalai Lama Greeted By Nehru, Again Blasts Reds, 1959-04-30 | California, 1959-04-30 | Virginia, 1959-04-30 | Space Mice_ Plan 'Live' Satellite In 1st Recovery Test, 1959-05-21 | Space Monkeys Meet Press After Missile Mission, 1959-06-01 | Khrushchev's Mystery Trip To Albania, 1959-06-01 | Red China, 1959-06-04 | X-15 Aloft_ First Free Flight Of Manned Space Plane, 1959-06-11 | Connecticut, 1959-06-11 | Red Fair Opens In New York, 1959-06-29 | Ike's Calendar_ honors Gen_ Taylor, Welcomes Kozlov, 1959-07-02 | Khrushchev In Poland, 1959-07-20 | Castro 'Resigns' Mass Demonstrations Show His Power Secure, 1959-07-20 | Nixon's Moscow Mission, 1959-07-23 | Nixon In U_S_S_R_ Opening U_S_ Fair, Clashes With Mr_ K, 1959-07-27 | Havana Rally_ Peasants Mass To Support Castro, 1959-07-27 | Nixon In U_S_S_R_ Views Red A-Ship Parries Hecklers, 1959-07-30 | New Diplomacy_ Ike And Khrushchev To Exchange Visits, 1959-08-03 | Nixon's Triumphal Return, 1959-08-06 | Explorer VI Paddle-Wheel Moon Puts Eye In The Sky, 1959-08-10 | Bonn Hails Ike! Says U_S_ Will Stand By Berlin, 1959-08-27 | New York City, 1959-08-27 | Denver, 1959-08-27 | Harbor Blaze_ Chemical Blasts Rock Port of N_Y, 1959-09-10 | Reds 'Lunik' Hits The Moon, 1959-09-14 | Free China_ 10 years On Formosa, 1959-10-05 | West Coast Hails First World Series, 1959-10-05 | Good-Will Swap_ U_S_S_R_ Film Premiere Opens Culture Exchange, 1959-11-02 | Iran, 1959-11-02
UNIVERSAL NEWSREELS VOLUME EIGHT: THE COLD WAR AND THE SPACE RACE 1960-1962 (Total Run Time: 3 Hrs. 15 Mins.)
Russia, 1960-05-05 | Spy Story of The Year, 1960-05-09 | New Magellan_ 'Triton' Circles World Submerged, 1960-05-12 | Powers Case_ Ike States Policy On Spies and Open Skies, 1960-05-12 | Summit Crisis_ Mr_ K_ In Ugly Mood Over U-2 Incident , 1960-05-16 | Down From Summit Mr_ K_ Kills Conference, Big 4 Depart For Homes, 1960-05-19 | Florida, 1960-05-23 | U-2 At U_N_ Reds Now Charge U_S_ Menaces Peace, 1960-05-23 | Open Sky Plan_ Ike Offers U_N_ U_S_ Photo Planes, 1960-05-27 | U_N_ Spy Debate_ Reds 'Bugged' American Embassy Lodge Claims, 1960-05-27 | Cataclysm_ Volcano, Tidal Waves, Devastate Pacific Area, 1960-05-27 | Whites Flee_ Newly Independent Congo In Upheaval, 1960-07-11 | Missile Milestone_ First Polaris Firing By Submerged U-Boat, 1960-07-21 | 25 Years Ago, 1960-05-19 | The RB-47 Debate_ Lodge Debunks Red Spy-Flight Charges, 1960-07-25 | Republic Convention Highlights, 1960-07-25 | March Of Events In Congo Crisis, 1960-08-04 | Space Triumph_ Discoverer Capsule Recovered From Orbit , 1960-08-15 | U-2 Spy Trial_ Ike Hits Powers Case Exploitation By Reds, 1960-08-18 | Space Race_ A_ F_ Snares Satellite Capsule In Mid-Air, 1960-08-22 | Mr_ K_ And Castro_ Top Reds And Allies Get Chill Greeting, 1960-09-19 | Mexico, 1960-09-19 | Ike At U_N_ Proposes New World Disarmament Program, 1960-09-22 | 25 Years Ago, 1960-09-22 | History At U_N_ World Leaders Set New York A-Whirl , 1960-09-26 | Spotlight Of History On The U_N, 1960-09-29 | Satchmo Swings In Congo, 1960-10-31 | Khrushchev Threatens Dag & U_N, 1960-10-03 | Florida, 1960-10-06 | Invasion Scare_ Castro Masses Troops, Claims U_S_ 'Aggression', 1960-10-31 | Kennedy Elected, 1960-11-10 | Nuclear Navy_ First Polaris A-Sub Sails On Ocean Patrol, 1960-11-17 | Algeria, 1960-11-17 | Tiros II Weatherman Satellite In Orbit Around Earth, 1960-11-24 | Lumumba Seized_ Followers Threaten New Congo Upheaval, 1960-12-05 | Strategy Talks_ Kennedy Confers With His Congress leaders, 1960-12-22 | Space Progress_ 'Man-In'Space' Capsule Recovery Successful, 1960-12-22 | News Highlights of 1960, 1960-12-31 | U_S_ Breaks Relations With Cuba, 1961-01-05 | Inauguration_ Kennedy Sworn In, New Era Begins, 1961-01-23 | NATO War Games_ Germany Is Stage For Big Winter Maneuvers, 1961-02-09 | Peace Corps_ Kennedy Outlines Global Program, 1961-03-13 | Kasavubu Hailed_ Congo Federation Plan Target Of Controversy, 1961-03-20 | Laos Crisis_ Kennedy-Gromyko Voice Peace Hopes, 1961-03-27 | Anglo-U_S_ Amity_ U_S_-British Pledge United Front , 1961-04-06 | Eichmann trial, 1961-04-13 | Cosmos Pioneer_ Soviets Orbit Man In Space, 1961-04-13 | Cuba Invaded_ Foes of Castro Open Offensive, 1961-04-19 | First Pictures_ Soviets Hail Space hero , 1961-04-19 | Reds Celebrate May Day, 1961-05-05 | As World Watched_ Spaceman Hailed After U_S_ Triumph, 1961-05-08 | Cosmonaut_ Russian Orbits Globe17 Times, 1961-08-07 | Berlin, 1961-08-31 | World Shocked_ Reds Threaten H-Bomb Tests, 1961-08-31 | Formosa, 1961-10-16 | Civil Planes Grounded in Defense Alert, 1961-10-16 | France, 1961-10-16 | 50 Megatons_ U_S_ Protests New Red Test , 1961-10-19 | Chimp into space (no title), 1961-11-30 | New Mexico, 1961-11-30 | Space Triumph! Glenn Flight Thrills World, 1962-02-22 | Uneasy Peace_ Algeria Tense Under Cease-Fire, 1962-03-22 | India, 1962-03-22 | A Day in History_ Telstar Brings World Closer, 1962-07-12 | X-15 Space Record_ Plane Flown To 59-mile Mark, 1962-07-19 | Kennedy on Telstar_ Europe -sees News Conference, 1962-07-23 | First Lady At Play_ She Joins Glenn At Water Skiing, 1962-07-23 | Income Tax Cut_ Kennedy Hopes To Spur Economy, 1962-08-13 | The Wall, 1962-08-16 | 25 Years Ago, 1962-08-16 | Kennedy Tour_ Calls For U_S_ lead In Space, 1962-09-13 | 25 Years Ago, 1962-09-13 | The Red Threat_ President Orders Cuban Blockade, 1962-10-22 | The Cuban Crisis, 1962-10-25 | Crisis Eases_ Wary U_S_ Awaits Missile Removal, 1962-10-29 | Missile Bases_ Castro Balks At U_N_ Team, 1962-11-01 | President Tours_ Kennedy Inspects Nuclear Bases, 1962-12-10
UNIVERSAL NEWSREELS VOLUME NINE: THE COLD WAR AND THE SPACE RACE 1963-1967 (Total Run Time: 2 Hrs. 4 Mins.)
Suspense Story_ Nat'l Press Club Hears Hitchcock, 1963-03-18 | Space Movie_ Camera Records Missile In Flight, 1963-11-14 | Space Tour_ Kennedy Inspects Missile Center, 1963-11-18 | Reds Free Professor_ Home After 16 Days In Soviet Prison, 1963-11-18 | New York World's Fair, 1964-03-02 | Olympics End_ U_S_ Teams Win Medal Honors, 1964-10-26 | Japan, 1964-10-12 | Khrushchev Resigns, 1964-10-15 | The Olympics_ U_S_ Dominates Tokyo Games, 1964-10-15 | 2,000-MPH Jet_ Johnson Reveals U_S_ Super Plane, 1964-03-02 | The Olympics_ U_S_ Widens Tokyo Lead, 1964-10-19 | Fashions, 1964-10-26 | Bernard Baruch Adviser To Presidents Is Dead At 94, 1965-06-21 | Marines In Action_ Dominican Rescue, Vietnam Offensive, 1965-04-29 | Johnson On Vietnam_ Vows To Fight On Until Reds Parley , 1965-05-13 | Inauguration Highlights, 1965-01-25 | LBJ Hears Graham, 1965-08-30 | Twins in Paris, 1965-06-21 | Vietnam Action_ Enterprise Planes Support Troops, 1965-12-09 | Showdown in Vietnam, 1965-02-08 | Dominican Truce_ Cease-Fire Brings Calm To Island, 1965-05-06 | Space Policeman_ Pegasus Measures Action Of Meteoroids, 1965-05-27 | McNamara On Vietnam_ New Moves Counter Red Infiltration, 1965-04-26 | (no title) , 1965-02-11 | Report on Vietnam, 1965-08-26 | Moscow, 1965-05-13 | Enterprise in War_ Nuclear Carrier Joins 7th Fleet, 1965-08-30 | Politics and Food_ U_S_ Feeds Dominicans, Power Struggle On, 1965-05-10 | The Dominican Revolt, 1965-05-03 | U_N_'s 20th year_ World Body Marks Signing of Charter, 1965-06-28 | Missile Passes Test_ Titan 3-C is Most Powerful Known, 1965-06-21 | Viet Sweep_ Troops Take Cong Stronghold, 1967-02-28 | Airbase Shelled_ Soviet Rockets Used In Attack, 1967-03-03 | Vietnam_ Big Enemy force Repulsed by G_I_'s, 1967-04-04 | Seattle, 1967-04-04 | Peace March_ Thousands Oppose Vietnam War, 1967-04-18 | Expo 67 'Monument To Man' Opens In Canada, 1967-05-02 | Loyalty Day, New York City, 1967-05-02 | Protests Galore! 1967-05-05 | Mid-East_ Israeli-Egyptian Battle Erupts, 1967-06-06 | Egypt Accepts United Nations Cease-Fire, 1967-06-09 | Cease-Fire_ Uneasy Truce In Mid-East, 1967-06-13 | Anti-War Demonstrators Storm Pentagon, 1967-10-24 | Inauguration_ Thieu Sworn In, Stresses Peace, 1967-11-03 | Wakefield, Mass, 1967-11-03 | England, 1967-11-03 | Lynda And Charles Marriage Takes Place In The White House, 1967-12-12
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, which began following World War II. Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span the 1947 Truman Doctrine (March 12, 1947) to the 1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union (December 26, 1991). The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events and technological competitions such as the Space Race. The Western Bloc was led by the United States as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were generally liberal democratic but tied to a network of the authoritarian states, most of which were their former colonies. The Eastern Bloc was led by the Soviet Union and its Communist Party, which had an influence across the Second World. The US government supported right-wing governments and uprisings across the world, while the Soviet government funded communist parties and revolutions around the world. As nearly all the colonial states achieved independence in the period 1945-1960, they became Third World battlefields in the Cold War. The first phase of the Cold War began shortly after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The United States created the NATO military alliance in 1949 in the apprehension of a Soviet attack and termed their global policy against Soviet influence containment. The Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955 in response to NATO. Major crises of this phase included the 1948-49 Berlin Blockade, the 1927-1949 Chinese Civil War, the 1950-1953 Korean War, the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the 1956 Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961 and the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. The US and the USSR competed for influence in Latin America, the Middle East, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split between China and the Soviet Union complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while France, a Western Bloc state, began to demand greater autonomy of action. The USSR invaded Czechoslovakia to suppress the 1968 Prague Spring, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the 1960s-70s, an international peace movement took root among citizens around the world. Movements against nuclear arms testing and for nuclear disarmament took place, with large anti-war protests. By the 1970s, both sides had started making allowances for peace and security, ushering in a period of detente that saw the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the USSR. A number of self-proclaimed Marxist regimes were formed in the second half of the 1970s in the Third World, including Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Cambodia, Afghanistan and Nicaragua. Detente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet-Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s was another period of elevated tension. The United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when it was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of glasnost ("openness", c. 1985) and perestroika ("reorganization", 1987) and ended Soviet involvement in Afghanistan. Pressures for national sovereignty grew stronger in Eastern Europe, and Gorbachev refused to militarily support their governments any longer. In 1989, the fall of the Iron Curtain after the Pan-European Picnic and a peaceful wave of revolutions (with the exception of Romania and Afghanistan) overthrew almost all communist governments of the Eastern Bloc. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control in the Soviet Union and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the formal dissolution of the USSR in December 1991, the declaration of independence of its constituent republics and the collapse of communist governments across much of Africa and Asia. The United States was left as the world's only superpower. The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy. It is often referred to in popular culture, especially with themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfare.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios. A Universal publicity official, Sam B. Jacobson, was involved in originating and producing the newsreels. Nearly all of them were filmed in black-and-white, and many were narrated by Ed Herlihy. From January 1919 to July 1929, Universal released International Newsreel, produced by Hearst's International News Service-this series later became Hearst Metrotone News released first by Fox Film Corporation 1929-1934 and then by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer beginning in 1934. In 1974, the films' owner, MCA, made the decision to donate all its edited newsreels and outtakes collection to the National Archives, without copyright restrictions. The decision effectively released the films into the public domain, although some stories may contain other underlying intellectual property or proprietary use rights. Because royalties no longer have to be paid in order to broadcast them, Universal Newsreels have become a popular source of file footage in recent years. The History Channel made them a key part of the TV series Year-By-Year. Also, C-SPAN and CNN regularly use the films for video of events that took place before those networks were founded. Also in the United Kingdom as Universal News from 1930 to 1959, a successor to Empire News Bulletin, and in Ireland as Universal Irish News, both are currently held (including British Paramount News) under Reuters archive. Other U.S. newsreel series included Pathe News (1910-1956), Fox Movietone News (1928-1963), Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day (1914-1967), Paramount News (1927-1957), and The March of Time (1935-1951).