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Marcus Aurelius Dies, And A Crisis Of Succession Ensues, Pitting Emperor's Son Commodus Against The Emperor's Choice With The Fate Of The Roman Empire Hanging In The Balance! Sophia Loren, Stephen Boyd, Aleq Guinness, Christopher Plummer, James Mason Star In High Historical Drama, Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS In An Archival Quality 2 Disc All Regions Format DVD Set, MP4 Video Download Or USB Flash Drive! Color, 3 Hours 8 Minutes.) #FallOfTheRomanEmpire #Rome #AncientRome #RomanEmpire #MarcusAurelius #AleqGuiness #Commodus #ChristopherPlummer #RomanEmperors #SophiaLoren #JamesMason #StephenBoyd #Movies #Film #Hollywood #DVD #VideoDownload #USBFlashDrive
The Fall Of The Roman Empire is a 1964 American epic film directed by Anthony Mann and produced by Samuel Bronston, with a screenplay by Ben Barzman, Basilio Franchina and Philip Yordan. The film stars Sophia Loren, Stephen Boyd, Alec Guinness, James Mason, Christopher Plummer, Mel Ferrer, and Omar Sharif. When filming for El Cid (1961) had finished, Anthony Mann saw a copy of Edward Gibbon's 1776-1789 six-volume series The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire inside the Hatchards bookshop. He pitched a film adaptation of the book to Samuel Bronston, who then agreed to produce the project. Philip Yordan was enlisted to write the script while Charlton Heston was initially set to star. However, Heston backed out of the film and agreed to star in 55 Days at Peking (1963). Prominent actors were cast to portray multiple roles in the film. The final screenplay was written by Ben Barzman and Basilio Franchina with a prologue written by historian Will Durant. Filming began in January 1963 and wrapped in July. Additionally, the film featured the largest outdoor film set in the history of film at that time, a 92,000 m2 (990,000 sq ft) replica of the Roman Forum. The film's name refers not to the final fall of the Roman empire, which did in fact survive for centuries after the period depicted in the film, but rather to the onset of corruption and decadence which led to Rome's demise. It deals extensively with the problem of imperial succession, and examines both the relationship between father and son on the background of imperial politics as well as the nature and limits of loyalty and friendship. On March 24, 1964, the film premiered at the London Astoria. Critics criticized the script as void of emotion and humanity and the directing as misguided, but showed some praise for the large spectacles. The film was a financial failure at the box-office.
The Fall Of The Western Roman Empire, also called the Fall Of The Roman Empire or the Fall Of Rome, was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities. The Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over its Western provinces; modern historians posit factors including the effectiveness and numbers of the army, the health and numbers of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the competence of the Emperors, the internal struggles for power, the religious changes of the period, and the efficiency of the civil administration. Increasing pressure from invading barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. Climatic changes and both endemic and epidemic disease drove many of these immediate factors. The reasons for the collapse are major subjects of the historiography of the ancient world and they inform much modern discourse on state failure. In 376, unmanageable numbers of Goths and other non-Roman people, fleeing from the Huns, entered the Empire. In 395, after winning two destructive civil wars, Theodosius I died, leaving a collapsing field army, and the Empire, still plagued by Goths, divided between the warring ministers of his two incapable sons. Further barbarian groups crossed the Rhine and other frontiers and, like the Goths, were not exterminated, expelled or subjugated. The armed forces of the Western Empire became few and ineffective, and despite brief recoveries under able leaders, central rule was never effectively consolidated. By 476, the position of Western Roman Emperor wielded negligible military, political, or financial power, and had no effective control over the scattered Western domains that could still be described as Roman. Barbarian kingdoms had established their own power in much of the area of the Western Empire. In 476, the Germanic barbarian king Odoacer deposed the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire in Italy, Romulus Augustulus, and the Senate sent the imperial insignia to the Eastern Roman Emperor Flavius Zeno. While its legitimacy lasted for centuries longer than its actual power and its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire survived, and although lessened in strength, remained for centuries an effective power of the Eastern Mediterranean. While the loss of political unity and military control is universally acknowledged, the Fall is not the only unifying concept for these events; the period described as Late Antiquity emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the political collapse.