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The Distinguished English Broadcaster, Natural Historian And Author David Attenborough Hosts This Engaging Journey Through The Lands, Cultures, Mythology, Gold And Art Treasures Of The Pre-Columbian Aztecs And Incas, Following Their Echoes Into The Modern Day Complete With A Visit With A Still-Surviving Tribe Of Incas, Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS As An Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD Or MP4 Video Download! (Color, 1975, 47 Minutes.) #SweatOfTheSun #MezoAmericanGold #DavidAttenborough #Gold #AztecGold #AztecArt #AztecMythology #AztecReligion #IncaGold #IncaArt #IncaMythology #IncaReligion #Aztecs #AztecEmpire#TripleAlliance #Incas #IncaEmpire #IncanEmpire #Americas #PreColumbianAmerica #America #Peru #Ecuador #Bolivia #Argentina #Chile #Columbia #Mexica #Mexico #MexicanHistory #Tenochtitlan #Americas #HernanCortes #HernanCortez #Montezuma #Moctezuma #MontezumaII #MoctezumaII #SpanishConquestOfTheAztecEmpire #ConquestOfMexico #SpanishAztecWar #SpanishColonizationOfTheAmericas #Conquistadors #SpanishEmpire #History #WorldHistory #Documentaries #DVD #MP4 #VideoDownload
The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance (Classical Nahuatl: Excan Tlahtoloyan), was an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan. These three city-states ruled that area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428, until the combined forces of the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies, under the name of Hernan Cortes, defeated them in 1521. The alliance was formed from the victorious factions of a civil war that was fought between the city of Azcapotzalco and the former tributary provinces from it. Despite the initial conception of the empire as an alliance of three self-governed city-states, Tenochtitlan quickly became dominant militarily. By the time the Spanish arrived in 1519, the lands from the alliance were effectively ruled from the capital, Tenochtitlan, while the other partners from the alliance had taken many subsidiary roles. The alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded rapidly after its formation. At its height, the alliance controlled most of central Mexico as well as some more distant territories within Mesoamerica, such as the Xoconochco province, an Aztec exclave near the present-day Guatemalan border. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as "hegemonic" or "indirect". The Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. In return, the imperial authority offered protection and political stability, and facilitated an integrated economic network of diverse lands and peoples who had significant local autonomy. The state religion of the empire was polytheistic, worshiping a diverse pantheon that included dozens of deities. Many had officially recognized cults large enough so that the deity was represented in the central temple precinct of the capital Tenochtitlan. The imperial cult, specifically, was that of Huitzilopochtli, the distinctive warlike patron god of the Mexica. Peoples in conquered provinces were allowed to retain and freely continue their own religious traditions, so long as they added the imperial god Huitzilopochtli to their local pantheons.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "four parts together"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, western Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and the southwesternmost tip of Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia. Its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti - their sun god - and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun." The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many of the features associated with civilization in the Old World. Anthropologist Gordon McEwan wrote that the Inca were able to construct "one of the greatest imperial states in human history" without the use of the wheel, draft animals, knowledge of iron or steel, or even a system of writing. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture, especially stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings (quipu) for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, and the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor. The Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars; Darrell E. La Lone, in his work The Inca as a Nonmarket Economy, noted that the Inca economy has been described as "feudal, slave, [and] socialist." The Inca Empire functioned largely without money and without markets. Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers (who theoretically owned all the means of production) reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects.
The Neo-Inca State, also known as the Neo-Inca state of Vilcabamba, was the Inca state established in 1537 at Vilcabamba by Manco Inca Yupanqui (the son of Inca emperor Huayna Capac). It is considered a rump state of the Inca Empire (1438-1533), which collapsed after the Spanish conquest in the mid-1530s. The Neo-Inca State lasted until 1572, when the last Inca stronghold was conquered, and the last ruler, Tupac Amaru (Manco's son), was captured and executed, thus ending the political authority of the Inca state.