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From The Sun's Own Mercury To The Great Gas Giants And On To The Great Beyond With William Shatner! The Pioneer Program, Voyager Program, Mariner 10 And The Universe As Seen Through Four Half-Hour Films Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS As An Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD, MP4 Video Download Or USB Flash Drive! #PioneerProgram #Voyager1 #Voyager2 #VoyagerProgram #Mariner10 #MarinerProgram #RoboticSpacecraft #Spaceflight #NASA #SpaceAge #Probes #SpaceExploration #SolarSystem #SpaceRace #ColdWar #SpaceProbes #InterplanetaryProbes #InterplanetaryExploration #InterplanetarySpace #InterstellarSpace #InterstellarExploration #Spacecraft #NASAHistory #Jupiter #Saturn #Uranus #Neptune #Mercury #Venus #Universe #TheUniverse #Cosmos #TheCosmos #Space #OuterSpace #WilliamShatner #DVD #VideoDownload #MP4 #USBFlashDrive
JUPITER ODYSSEY (COLOR, 28:05)
The many landmark successes of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 missions to the the largest planet by far in the solar system are here celebrated in detail.
VOYAGER (COLOR, 24:56)
The famed & historic deep space satellite program in its planetary role of touring and studying the outer planets, the tools used and purposes in obtaining information outside the solar system and the bits of mother earth and the human society on it that the two Voyager spacecraft took into the great unknown.
UNIVERSE (COLOR, 26:50)
William Shatner, best known as Captain Kirk of the "Star Trek" television series, narrates this quest into the mysteries of the planet, solar system and universe as well as the technological devices and procedures used in discovering them.
MERCURY: EXPLORATION OF A PLANET (1976, 28:30)
The innermost planets of the solar system, Venus and Mercury, were visited by the technological triumph that was the Mariner 10 space probe, Mercury was its final and most significant destination, and it is this film's intent to document the reasons why this was so.
The Pioneer Programs were two series of United States lunar and planetary space probes exploration. The first program, which ran from 1958 to 1960, unsuccessfully attempted to send spacecraft to orbit the Moon, successfully sent one spacecraft to fly by the Moon, and successfully sent one spacecraft to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of Earth and Venus. The second program, which ran from 1965 to 1992, sent four spacecraft to measure interplanetary space weather, two to explore Jupiter and Saturn, and two to explore Venus. The two outer planet probes, Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, became the first of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System, and carried a golden plaque depicting a man and a woman and information about the origin and the creators of the probes, in case any extraterrestrials find them someday.
The Voyager Program is an ongoing American scientific program that employs two robotic Interstellar probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. They were launched in 1977 to take advantage of a favorable alignment of Jupiter and Saturn, to fly near them while collecting data for transmission back to Earth. After launch the decision was taken to additionally send Voyager 2 near Uranus and Neptune to collect data for transmission back to Earth. As of 2021, the two Voyagers are still in operation past the outer boundary of the heliosphere in interstellar space. They both continue to collect and transmit useful data to Earth. As of 2021, Voyager 1 was moving with a velocity of 61,045 kilometers per hour (37,932 mph) relative to the Sun, and was 22,676,000,000 kilometers (1.4090_1010 mi) from the Sun reaching at a distance of 152.6 AU (22.8 billion km; 14.2 billion mi) from Earth as of April 24, 2021. As of 2021, Voyager 2 was moving with a velocity of 55,150 kilometers per hour (34,270 mph) relative to the Sun, and was 18,980,000,000 kilometers (1.179_1010 mi) from the Sun reaching at a distance of 126.9 AU (19.0 billion km; 11.8 billion mi) from Earth as of April 24, 2021. On 25 August 2012, data from Voyager 1 indicated that it had entered interstellar space. On 5 November 2019, data from Voyager 2 indicated that it also had entered interstellar space. On 4 November 2019, scientists reported that, on 5 November 2018, the Voyager 2 probe had officially reached the interstellar medium (ISM), a region of outer space beyond the influence of the solar wind, and has now joined the Voyager 1 probe which had reached the ISM earlier in 2012. Although the Voyagers have moved beyond the influence of the solar wind, they still have a long way to go before exiting the Solar System. NASA indicates "[I]f we define our solar system as the Sun and everything that primarily orbits the Sun, Voyager 1 will remain within the confines of the solar system until it emerges from the Oort cloud in another 14,000 to 28,000 years." Data and photographs collected by the Voyagers' cameras, magnetometers and other instruments revealed unknown details about each of the four giant planets and their moons. Close-up images from the spacecraft charted Jupiter's complex cloud forms, winds and storm systems and discovered volcanic activity on its moon Io. Saturn's rings were found to have enigmatic braids, kinks and spokes and to be accompanied by myriad "ringlets". At Uranus, Voyager 2 discovered a substantial magnetic field around the planet and ten more moons. Its flyby of Neptune uncovered three rings and six hitherto unknown moons, a planetary magnetic field and complex, widely distributed auroras. As of 2021 Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. In August 2018, NASA confirmed, based on results by the New Horizons spacecraft, the existence of a "hydrogen wall" at the outer edges of the Solar System that was first detected in 1992 by the two Voyager spacecraft. The Voyager spacecraft were built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which also financed their launches from Cape Canaveral, Florida, their tracking and everything else concerning the probes. The cost of the original program was 865M USD, with the later-added Voyager Interstellar Mission costing an extra 30M USD.
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on 3 November 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. It was the first spacecraft to perform flybys of multiple planets. Mariner 10 was launched approximately two years after Mariner 9 and was the last spacecraft in the Mariner program. (Mariner 11 and Mariner 12 were allocated to the Voyager program and redesignated Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.) The mission objectives were to measure Mercury's environment, atmosphere, surface, and body characteristics and to make similar investigations of Venus. Secondary objectives were to perform experiments in the interplanetary medium and to obtain experience with a dual-planet gravity assist mission. Mariner 10's science team was led by Bruce C. Murray at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
The Universe (Latin: universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the universe. According to estimation of this theory, space and time emerged together 13.799_0.021 billion years ago, and the universe has been expanding ever since. While the spatial size of the entire universe is unknown, the cosmic inflation equation indicates that it must have a minimum diameter of 23 trillion light years, and it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe, which is approximately 93 billion light-years in diameter at the present day. The earliest cosmological models of the universe were developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers and were geocentric, placing Earth at the center. Over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. In developing the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton built upon Copernicus's work as well as Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion and observations by Tycho Brahe. Further observational improvements led to the realization that the Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way, which is one of a few hundred billion galaxies in the universe. Many of the stars in galaxy have planets. At the largest scale, galaxies are distributed uniformly and the same in all directions, meaning that the universe has neither an edge nor a center. At smaller scales, galaxies are distributed in clusters and superclusters which form immense filaments and voids in space, creating a vast foam-like structure. Discoveries in the early 20th century have suggested that the universe had a beginning and that space has been expanding since then at an increasing rate. According to the Big Bang theory, the energy and matter initially present have become less dense as the universe expanded. After an initial accelerated expansion called the inflationary epoch at around 10_32 seconds, and the separation of the four known fundamental forces, the universe gradually cooled and continued to expand, allowing the first subatomic particles and simple atoms to form. Dark matter gradually gathered, forming a foam-like structure of filaments and voids under the influence of gravity. Giant clouds of hydrogen and helium were gradually drawn to the places where dark matter was most dense, forming the first galaxies, stars, and everything else seen today. From studying the movement of galaxies, it has been discovered that the universe contains much more matter than is accounted for by visible objects; stars, galaxies, nebulas and interstellar gas. This unseen matter is known as dark matter (dark means that there is a wide range of strong indirect evidence that it exists, but we have not yet detected it directly). The _CDM model is the most widely accepted model of the universe. It suggests that about 69.2%_1.2%  of the mass and energy in the universe is a cosmological constant (or, in extensions to _CDM, other forms of dark energy, such as a scalar field) which is responsible for the current expansion of space, and about 25.8%_1.1%  is dark matter. Ordinary ('baryonic') matter is therefore only 4.84%_0.1%  of the physical universe. Stars, planets, and visible gas clouds only form about 6% of the ordinary matter. There are many competing hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the universe and about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang, while other physicists and philosophers refuse to speculate, doubting that information about prior states will ever be accessible. Some physicists have suggested various multiverse hypotheses, in which our universe might be one among many universes that likewise exist.