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Napoleon's Life And Legacy As Told In This Docudrama About His Exile On The Island Of Saint Helena As Told By The Writings Of His Companions-In-Exile -- Count Emmanuel De Las Cases, French Aristocrat Author Who Wrote "Le Memorial de Sainte-Helene" (The Memorial Of Saint Helena) Based On Their Conversations; Barry O'Meara, Irish Surgeon Who Served As Napoleon's Doctor During His Exile And Wrote "Napoleon In Exile, Or A Voice From St. Helena'; And Louis Marchand, Napoleon's Valet And Memoirists -- In A Timewatch Special Presentation With Kenneth Colley As Napoleon. John Normington As Las Cases, Ian McNeice As O'Meara And Stephen Fulton As Marchand, And Analyses By "Napoleon And His Parents" Author Dorothy Carrington; Clive Emsley Of Open University; Hazel Mills Of Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge; And Gwynne Lewis, University Of Warwick - All Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS As An MP4 Video Download Or Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD! (Color, 1990, 59 Minutes.) #NapoleonsLastBattle #TheMemorialOfSaintHelena #KennethColley #JohnNormington #IanMcNeice #StephenFulton #DorothyCarrington #CliveEmsley #HazelMills #GwynneLewis #NapoleonBonaparte #Napoleon #NapoleonI #EmmanuelDeLasCases, #LeMemorialDeSainteHelene #BarryOMeara #NapoleonInExile #Biographies #LouisMarchand #Memoirs #BattleOfAusterlitz #BattleOfBorodino #BattleOfMoscow1812 BattleOfMoscow #FireOfMoscow #FireOfMoscow1812 #FrenchRevolution #FrenchRevolutionaryWars #NapoleonicWars #EmperorOfTheFrench #HundredDays #TheHundredDays #FirstFrenchEmpire #Corsica #Italians #NobilityOfItaly #FrenchDirectory #FrenchArmyOfItaly #ThirteenVendemiaire #TreizeVendemiaire #CoupOf18Brumaire #FrenchConsulate #BattleOfWaterloo #DissolutionOfTheHolyRomanEmpire #GrandeArmee #GreatArmy #TreatiesOfTilsit #ContinentalSystem #PeninsularWar #FrenchInvasionOfRussia #Elba #SaintHelena #NapoleonicCode #FrenchHistory #HistoryOfFrance #MP4 #VideoDownload #DVD
On October 15, 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte arrived on the Island of Saint Helena, 1,870 km (1,162 mi) from the west coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean, beginning a British-imposed exile following his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The British also took the precaution of sending a small garrison of soldiers to both Saint Helena and the uninhabited Ascension Island, which lay between St. Helena and Europe, to prevent any escape from the island. Napoleon was moved to Longwood House on Saint Helena in December 1815; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy. The Times published articles insinuating the British government was trying to hasten his death. Napoleon often complained of the living conditions of Longwood House in letters to the island's governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe, while his attendants complained of "colds, catarrhs, damp floors and poor provisions." Modern scientists have speculated that his later illness may have arisen from arsenic poisoning caused by copper arsenite in the wallpaper at Longwood House. With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon dictated his memoirs and grumbled about the living conditions. Lowe cut Napoleon's expenditure, ruled that no gifts were allowed if they mentioned his imperial status, and made his supporters sign a guarantee they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely. When he held a dinner party, men were expected to wear military dress and "women [appeared] in evening gowns and gems. It was an explicit denial of the circumstances of his captivity". While in exile, Napoleon wrote a book about Julius Caesar, one of his great heroes. He also studied English under the tutelage of Count Emmanuel de Las Cases with the main aim of being able to read English newspapers and books, as access to French newspapers and books was heavily restricted to him on Saint Helena. Napoleon also devoted himself to compiling a book "Memorial de Ste-Helene", an account which reflected his self-depiction as a liberal, visionary ruler for European unification, deposed by reactionary elements of the Ancien Regime. Another pastime of Napoleon's while in exile was playing card games. The number of patiences named in his honour seems to suggest that he was an avid player of the solitary game. Napoleon at St Helena is described as being a favourite of his, while Napoleon's Favourite (or St. Helena) is clearly a contender. Other games with a Napoleonic theme include Napoleon's Flank, Napoleon's Shoulder, Napoleon's Square and Little Napoleon Patience. However, Arnold argues that, while Napoleon played cards in exile, the notion that he played numerous patience games is "based on a misunderstanding". There were rumours of plots and even of his escape from Saint Helena, but in reality, no serious attempts were ever made. For English poet Lord Byron, Napoleon was the epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely, and flawed genius.
Napoleon Bonaparte, French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars (August 15, 1769 - 1821) was born Napoleone Di Buonaparte on the island of Corsica. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history. He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica on 15 August 1769 to a relatively modest family of Italian ancestry from the minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789. He rapidly rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian allies, winning virtually every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year, and becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power. He orchestrated a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic. His ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, then marched his Grande Armee deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon then invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, and declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies. The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war. The French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign destroyed Russian cities but resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armee and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil. The Allies then invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, and the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years later at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries, Switzerland, and large parts of modern Italy and Germany. He implemented fundamental liberal policies in France and throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world - meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on - were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.". Napoleon died in exile on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean of what was generally believed then and now to have been caused by stomach cancer.