USD. Free Shipping Worldwide!
The Minoan Civilization, Europe's Earliest Civilized Culture, The First Link In The European Chain Of The Western Tradition, Who Parented Ancient Greek Civilization And Thereby Affected Western Culture Up Until This Very Day, Rediscovered By British Archaeologist Sir Arthur John Evans, And Whose Demise Is Almost Certainly The Origin Of The Myth Of Atlantis, Narrated By The Distinquished Richard Kiley And Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS As An MP4 Video Download Or Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD! (Color, 1996, 48 Minutes.)
The Minoan Civilization was a Bronze Age Aegean civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands, whose earliest beginnings date to c. 3500 BC, with the complex urban civilization beginning around 2000 BC, and then declining from c. 1450 BC until it ended around 1100 BC, during the early Greek Dark Ages, part of a wider bronze age collapse around the Mediterranean. It represents the first advanced civilization in Europe, leaving behind a number of massive building complexes, sophisticated art, and writing systems. Its economy benefited from a network of trade around much of the Mediterranean. The civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. The name "Minoan" derives from the mythical King Minos and was coined by Evans, who identified the site at Knossos with the labyrinth of the Minotaur. The Minoan civilization has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe, and historian Will Durant called the Minoans "the first link in the European chain". The Minoans built large and elaborate palaces up to four stories high, featuring elaborate plumbing systems and decorated with frescoes. The largest Minoan palace is that of Knossos, followed by that of Phaistos. The function of the palaces, like most aspects of Minoan governance and religion, remains unclear. The Minoan period saw extensive trade by Crete with Aegean and Mediterranean settlements, particularly those in the Near East. Through traders and artists, Minoan cultural influence reached beyond Crete to the Cyclades, the Old Kingdom of Egypt, copper-bearing Cyprus, Canaan and the Levantine coast and Anatolia. Some of the best Minoan art was preserved in the city of Akrotiri on the island of Santorini; Akrotiri had been effectively destroyed by the Minoan eruption. The Minoans primarily wrote in the Linear A script and also in Cretan hieroglyphs, encoding a language hypothetically labelled Minoan. The reason for the slow decline of the Minoan civilization, beginning around 1550 BC, is The Minoan Eruption, a catastrophic volcanic eruption that devastated the Aegean island of Thera (also called Santorini) circa 1600 BC. It destroyed the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri, as well as communities and agricultural areas on nearby islands and the coast of Crete with subsequent earthquakes and paleotsunamis. With a VEI magnitude between 6 and 7, resulting in an ejection of approximately 28-41 km3 (6.7-9.8 cu mi) of dense-rock equivalent (DRE), the eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in human history. Since tephra from the Minoan eruption serves as a marker horizon in nearly all archaeological sites in the Eastern Mediterranean, its precise date is of high importance. Its plume and volcanic lightning may have been described in the Egyptian Tempest Stele, and the Chinese Bamboo Annals reported unusual yellow skies and summer frost at the beginning of the Shang dynasty, which may have been a consequence of volcanic winter (similar to 1816, the Year Without a Summer, after the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora).
The Tempest Stele, also known as The Storm Stele, was erected by Pharaoh Ahmose I early in the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, c. 1550 BC. The stele describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples and pyramids in the Theban region and the work of restoration ordered by the king.
The argument has been made that there was a meteorological event of far-reaching proportions, one of the major aftereffects of the Thera eruption. and that the stele reflects an eye-witness account of the eruption. In 2014, Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritner offered a new translation of the Tempest Stela. They believe the unusual weather patterns described on the slab were the result of a massive volcano explosion at Thera. They also suggest that the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I ruled at a time closer to the Thera eruption than previously thought; in the conventional but disputed Egyptian chronology he ruled from c.?1539-1514 BC. The time of Ahmose I rule is under dispute for other reasons, and he has been assigned a reign from 1570-1546, 1560-1537, 1551-1527 and 1539-1514 by various sources. A medical examination of his mummy indicates that he died when he was about thirty-five, supporting a 25-year reign if he came to the throne at the age of 10. The radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570-1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC. Additional scientific research published in 2018 also suggests a correlation.
Sir Arthur John Evans FRS FBA FREng (July 8, 1851 - July 11, 1941) was a British archaeologist and pioneer in the study of Aegean civilization in the Bronze Age. He is most famous for unearthing the palace of Knossos on the Greek island of Crete. Based on the structures and artifacts found there and throughout the eastern Mediterranean, Evans found that he needed to distinguish the Minoan civilisation from Mycenaean Greece. Evans was also the first to define Cretan scripts Linear A and Linear B, as well as an earlier pictographic writing.