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The Scientific And Technological Chain That Led From American Rocket Pioneer Robert Goddard's Invention Of Liquid-Fueled Multistage Rockets To American Aerospace Pioneer Neil Armstrong's First Manned Landing On The Moon Aboard Apollo 11, Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS As An Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD, MP4 Video Download Or USB Flash Drive! (Color, 1991, 45 Minutes.) #RobertGoddard #RocketPioneers #FatherOfTheSpaceAge #FoundingFathersOfModernRocketry #RocketEngineers #Rockets #Rocketry #Inventors #SpaceAge #NeilArmstrong #Apollo11 #ApolloProgram #ProjectApollo #MoonLanding #MoonWalkers #NASA #NASAHistory #SpaceExploration #Moon #TheMoon #MannedSpaceProgram #HumanSpaceflightPrograms #DVD #VideoDownload #USBFlashDrive
Modern rockets originated in 1926 when Robert Goddard attached a supersonic (de Laval) nozzle to a high pressure combustion chamber. These nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, hypersonic, highly directed jet of gas, more than doubling the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2% to 64%. His use of liquid propellants instead of gunpowder greatly lowered the weight and increased the effectiveness of rockets. Their use in World War II artillery developed the technology further and opened up the possibility of human spaceflight after 1945. In 1943 production of the V-2 rocket began in Germany. In parallel with the German guided-missile programme, rockets were also used on aircraft, either for assisting horizontal take-off (RATO), vertical take-off (Bachem Ba 349 "Natter") or for powering them (Me 163, see list of World War II guided missiles of Germany). The Allies' rocket programs were less technological, relying mostly on unguided missiles like the Soviet Katyusha rocket in the artillery role, and the American anti tank bazooka projectile. These used solid chemical propellants. The Americans captured a large number of German rocket scientists, including Wernher von Braun, in 1945, and brought them to the United States as part of Operation Paperclip. After World War II scientists used rockets to study high-altitude conditions, by radio telemetry of temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, detection of cosmic rays, and further techniques; note too the Bell X-1, the first crewed vehicle to break the sound barrier (1947). Independently, in the Soviet Union's space program research continued under the leadership of the chief designer Sergei Korolev (1907-1966). During the Cold War rockets became extremely important militarily with the development of modern intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). The 1960s saw rapid development of rocket technology, particularly in the Soviet Union (Vostok, Soyuz, Proton) and in the United States (e.g. the X-15). Rockets came into use for space exploration. American crewed programs (Project Mercury, Project Gemini and later the Apollo programme) culminated in 1969 with the first crewed landing on the Moon by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin - using equipment launched by the Saturn V rocket.