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The Life, Work And Legacy Of Leo Szilard, Hungarian-German-American Physicist And Inventor, Conceiver Of The Nuclear Chain Reaction, Creator Of The Nuclear Reactor With Enrico Fermi, And Co-Author Of The Einstein-Szilard Letter To President Franklin Roosevelt That Resulted In The Manhattan Project That Built The Atomic Bomb, Whose Later Opposition To And Activism Against Nuclear Weaponry Made Him An Outsider In The Fields He Founded, Presented In The Highest DVD Quality MPG Video Format Of 9.1 MBPS As An Archival Quality All Regions Format DVD, MP4 Video Download Or USB Flash Drive! (Color, 1991, 57 Minutes.) #LeoSzilard #Physicists #Inventors #Engineers #Academics #Geniuses #Jews #NuclearPhysics #ManhattanProject #NuclearWeapons #AtomicBomb #WorldWarII #WorldWar2 #WWII #WW2 #WorldWarTwo #SecondWorldWar #SecondEuropeanWar #EuropeanCivilWar #EinsteinSzilardLetter #NuclearChainReaction #SzilardPetition #AtomBomb #DVD #VideoDownload #MP4 #USBFlashDrive
Leo Szilard, Hungarian-American physicist physicist, engineer, inventor and academic who conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear fission reactor in 1934, and in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb (February 11, 1898 - May 30, 1964) was born Leo Spitz in Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary. He was one of "The Martians", a group of prominent Jewish Hungarian scientists (mostly, but not exclusively, physicists and mathematicians) who emigrated to the United States in the early half of the 20th century. Szilárd, who jokingly suggested that Hungary was a front for aliens from Mars, used this term. In an answer to the question of why there is no evidence of intelligent life beyond Earth despite the high probability of it existing, Szilárd responded: "They are already here among us - they just call themselves Hungarians." Szilard initially attended Palatine Joseph Technical University in Budapest, but his engineering studies were interrupted by service in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I. He left Hungary for Germany in 1919, enrolling at Technische Hochschule (Institute of Technology) in Berlin-Charlottenburg, but became bored with engineering and transferred to Friedrich Wilhelm University, where he studied physics. He wrote his doctoral thesis on Maxwell's demon, a long-standing puzzle in the philosophy of thermal and statistical physics. Szilard was the first to recognize the connection between thermodynamics and information theory. In addition to the nuclear reactor, Szilard coined and submitted the earliest known patent applications and the first publications for the concepts of electron microscope (1928), the linear accelerator (1928), and the cyclotron (1929) in Germany, proving him as the originator of the idea of these devices. Between 1926 and 1930, he worked with Einstein on the development of the Einstein refrigerator. After Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, Szilard urged his family and friends to flee Europe while they still could. He moved to England, where he helped found the Academic Assistance Council, an organization dedicated to helping refugee scholars find new jobs. While in England he discovered a means of isotope separation known as the Szilard-Chalmers effect. Foreseeing another war in Europe, Szilard moved to the United States in 1938, where he worked with Enrico Fermi and Walter Zinn on means of creating a nuclear chain reaction. He was present when this was achieved within the Chicago Pile-1 on December 2, 1942. He worked for the Manhattan Project's Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago on aspects of nuclear reactor design. He drafted the Szilard petition advocating a demonstration of the atomic bomb, but the Interim Committee chose to use them against cities without warning. After the war, Szilard switched to biology. He invented the chemostat, discovered feedback inhibition, and was involved in the first cloning of a human cell. He publicly sounded the alarm against the possible development of salted thermonuclear bombs, a new kind of nuclear weapon that might annihilate mankind. Diagnosed with bladder cancer in 1960, he underwent a cobalt-60 treatment that he had designed. He helped found the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he became a resident fellow. Szilard founded Council for a Livable World in 1962 to deliver "the sweet voice of reason" about nuclear weapons to Congress, the White House, and the American public. He died on May 30, 1964 in his sleep of a heart attack at the age of 66 in San Diego, California. His remains were cremated.